Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology IAMM  | About us |  Subscription |  e-Alerts  | Feedback |  Login   
  Print this page Email this page   Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size
 Home | Ahead of Print | Current Issue | Archives | Search | Instructions  
Users Online: 1337 Official Publication of Indian Association of Medical Microbiologists 
  Search
 
 ~ Next article
 ~ Previous article 
 ~ Table of Contents
  
 ~  Similar in PUBMED
 ~  Search Pubmed for
 ~  Search in Google Scholar for
 ~Related articles
 ~  [PDF Not available] *
 ~  Citation Manager
 ~  Access Statistics
 ~  Reader Comments
 ~  Email Alert *
 ~  Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
 ~  Abstract
 ~  Materials and Me...
 ~  Results
 ~  Discussion
 ~  References

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed5038    
    Printed170    
    Emailed3    
    PDF Downloaded0    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal

 
Year : 2001  |  Volume : 19  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 215-216
 

Cryptosporidiosis in a tertiary care hospital in Andhra Pradesh


Dept. of Microbiology, Gandhi Medical College, Hyderabad - 500 029, India

Correspondence Address:
Dept. of Microbiology, Gandhi Medical College, Hyderabad - 500 029, India

 ~ Abstract 

Enteric protozoal parasitic infection has become an important cause of morbidity in children and adults. In the developing countries the association of Cryptosporidium with acute and persistent diarrhoea has been striking. Stool samples from 1002 patients (800 adults and 202 children) suffering from diarrhoea or other gastrointestinal symptoms were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts by modified Ziehl Neelsen stained smears. C. parvum was detected in 2.99% of children and 0.12% adults. Other parasites detected were E. histolytica (6.18%), G. lamblia (1.49%), A. lumbricoides (1.49%), hookworm (1.39%), Strongyloides stercoralis (0.39%), and Taenia (0.09%).

How to cite this article:
Nagamani K, Rajkumari A, Gyaneshwari. Cryptosporidiosis in a tertiary care hospital in Andhra Pradesh. Indian J Med Microbiol 2001;19:215-6


How to cite this URL:
Nagamani K, Rajkumari A, Gyaneshwari. Cryptosporidiosis in a tertiary care hospital in Andhra Pradesh. Indian J Med Microbiol [serial online] 2001 [cited 2020 Jul 5];19:215-6. Available from: http://www.ijmm.org/text.asp?2001/19/4/215/8194


Enteric protozoal parasitic infection has become an important cause of morbidity in children and adults, not only in developing but also in the developed countries. The major parasites implicated are Giardia lamblia and the emerging spore forming protozoa viz C. parvum & C. cayetanensis. Cryptosporidium parvum appears to have become a threat to public health as it is ubiquitous, highly resistant to disinfectants and to date no effective therapy is available. First reported by Tyzzer[1] in 1907 and well known to veterinarians since 1953, Cryptosporidium has gained recognition as human pathogen since 1976.[2] The AIDS pandemic has brought Cryptosporidium to the forefront as an important cause of lifethreatening infection in immunocompromised persons. In the developing world, the association of Cryptosporidium with both acute and persistent diarrhoea among immuno competent children has been striking (26.9%).[4] Hence, the present study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in patients with diarrhoea who attended Gandhi Hospital from January 1999 to December 2000 over a period of two years.

 ~ Materials and Methods Top

Stool samples from 1002 patients, (800 adults and 202 children) suffering from diarrhoea or other gastrointestinal symptoms were examined for the presence of various parasites. Study population included both outpatients and inpatients from different clinical departments. All the stool samples were examined using saline and iodine wet mounts for the presence of protozoal cysts or trophozoites, helminthic ova and larvae, pus cells, macrophages and red blood cells. Air dried, heat fixed smears were stained by modified Ziehl Neelsen technique for detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts.

 ~ Results Top

Out of 1002 cases under study, 118 (11.77%) were positive for various parasites. The most common parasite detected was Entamoeba histolytica (6.18%) followed by Giardia lamblia (1.49%), Ascaris lumbricoides (1.49%), hookworm (1.39%) Cryptosporidium parvum (0.69%) Strongyloides stercoralis (0.39%) and Taenia species (0.09%).
Cryptosporidium oocysts appeared as oval to round bodies dark pink (acidfast) and measured 4m-5m in size. Seven cases were positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts, out of which 6 cases were in children (2.99%) in the age group 3 months to 3 years. All the children were from families of low socio economic status and presented with diarrhoea of 1-2 weeks duration exhibiting a moderate degree of dehydration. All of them recovered after supportive therapy. Only one case was an adult admitted with jaundice.

 ~ Discussion Top

Prevalence of human cryptosporidiosis varies widely in different parts of the world. A review of 78 reports showed Cryptosporidium infection in 2.1% and 6.1% of immunocompetent persons with diarrhoea in industrialised and developing countries respectively.[5] In the developing countries the disease is endemic. Recurrent Cryptosporidium infection and relapsing diarrhoea associated with it was found to be common in North Eastern Brazil.[6] 50% of children in China and more than 90% of children in Brazil had serologic evidence of cryptosporidial infection.[7] In South India C. parvum was detected in 13.1% of children with diarrhoea and 9.1% of age matched controls.[8] Reports from West Bengal[9] and Mumbai[10] showed the parasite to be prevalent in 4.45% and 5.5% of children with diarrhoea respectively, whereas a lower prevalence rate of 1.3% was reported from North India.[11] In the present study, Cryptosporidium was found in 2.99% and 0.12% of symptomatic children and adults respectively. All the findings so far reported are from hospital based studies. In spite of the increasing numbers of HIV infected patients and low standards of sanitation in the country which predispose to cryptosporidial infection, awareness regarding the disease continues to be low among microbiologists and clinicians. In order to understand the as yet undefined host parasite interaction, genetic and epidemiologic characterisaction of the emerging protozoon parasite Cryptosporidium, is needed. 

 ~ References Top

1.Tyzzer EE-A sporozoan found in the peptic glands of the common mouse. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1907; 5: 12-3.  Back to cited text no. 1    
2.Nime FA, Burek JD, Page DL, Holscher NA, Yardley JH. Acute enterocolitis in a human being infected with the protozoon Cryptosporidium. Gastroenterology 1976; 70: 592-8.  Back to cited text no. 2    
3.Edward N, Janoff, Barth Reller. Cryptosporidium species, a protean protozoan. J Clin Microbial 1987; 236:967-73.  Back to cited text no. 3    
4.Miller K, Duran - Pinales C, Cruz-Lopez A, Morales - Lechuga L, Taren D, Enriquez FJ. Cryptosporidium parvum in children with diarrhoea in Mexico. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1994; 51: 322-5.  Back to cited text no. 4    
5.Richard L Guerrant. Cryptosporidiosis: an emerging highly infectious threat: Emerg Inf Dis 1997; 3 (1): 51-7.  Back to cited text no. 5    
6.Robert D Newman, Cynthia L Sears, Sean R Moore, James P Nataro, Tadesse Wahib, Deborah A Agnew, Richard L Guerrant, Aldo AM Lima. Longitudinal study of Cryptosporidium infection in children in North Eastern Brazil. Infect Dis 1999; 180: 167-75.  Back to cited text no. 6    
7.Zu S-X, Li J-F, Barett LJ, Fayer R, Zhu S-Y, McAuliffe JF. Seroepidemiologic study of Cryptosporidium infection in children from rural communities of Anhui, China. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1994; 51: 1-10.  Back to cited text no. 7    
8.Mathan MM, Venkatesan S, George R, Mathew M, Mathan-VI. Cryptosporidium and diarrhoea in Southern Indian Children. Lancet 1985; ii: 1172-75.  Back to cited text no. 8    
9.Das P, Pal S, Dutta D, Bhattacharya MK. Cryptosporidium in Bengalee children with acute diarrhoea. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1987;81:241.  Back to cited text no. 9    
10.Saraswathi K, Pandit DV, Deodhar LP, Bichiles LS. Prevalence of Cryptosporidia in patients with diarrhoea in Bombay. Indian J Med Res 1988;87:221-4.  Back to cited text no. 10    
11.Sethi S, Sehgal R, Malla N, Mahajan RC. Cryptosporidiosis in a tertiary care hospital. National Med J India 1999; 12(5):207-9.  Back to cited text no. 11    
Top
Print this article  Email this article
Previous article Next article

    

2004 - Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow

Online since April 2001, new site since 1st August '04